When we speak or write we often refer to things that were mentioned earlier, haven’t been mentioned yet, or were mentioned in another context. Cataphoric Reference: A cataphoric reference unit refers to another unit that is introduced later on in the text/speech. To understand the unit refered to by a. Anaphoric and Cataphoric References. Anaphoric Reference. When we speak or write, we refer back to something that has already been mentioned or make a.

Author: Kazit Zulkilkree
Country: Somalia
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Science
Published (Last): 14 January 2013
Pages: 142
PDF File Size: 7.77 Mb
ePub File Size: 15.49 Mb
ISBN: 376-4-17985-215-7
Downloads: 36157
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kimi

Both the object and it refer ahaphoric to a small box in the first sentence. Thisas the more present or proximal pronoun, may also better convey the sense that what is being referred to is relevant in the present context for example, an application letter or cv. Email Required, but never shown. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

What is exophoric reference? It also refers to something that both speakers know about perhaps the dinner. Michael went to the bank. I also engaged in research If there is another standard reference with unquestioned facts about this particular usage it would be useful to know what it is. Anaphoric reference often makes ahaphoric of the definite article thebecause one of the functions of the definite article is to indicate that something has already been mentioned.

And one family sewed fake Russian uniforms for 4 themselves ; then, anaphori pretended to be Russian soldiers and simply drove through a checkpoint. Either word is possible, but this is better.


In this case, the reason might be that this is often used to refer to what came immediately before; but in general the use of this and that is rather unpredictable.

Is it ‘this’ or ‘that’ that conveys an anaphoric reference? And by whom it is to be preferred? He refers to Michael. The use of exophoric reference requires some shared knowledge between two speakers, or between writer and reader s. My answer offers an extract from the current gold standard in reference grammars CGEL and a very good prescriptive grammar for English language learners Swan. Sounds like Swann alone. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.

Cataphoric vs Anaphoric References – Azus Notes

Then, since Swann’s book is for non-native speakers, he must prefer for them to referencee by rules that are different from the ones that native speakers geference, which are what Huddleston and Pullum report. The book refers to Moby Dick. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language in its section p on anaphoric uses of this and that with noun phrases as antecedents states: Thus if we follow Swan, this is to be preferred to that in the context of the OP’s sentence.

What is anaphoric reference? The OP and other viewers will presumably decide if my answer is helpful or not.

Anaphoric, Cataphoric and Exophoric Referencing

Cataphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned later in the discourse. Some people dug tunnels; 2 others tried crashing through checkpoints with rfeerence, trucks, or busses; 3 still others flew out in small airplanes or balloons.


Perhaps Swan has identified a particular context where there is “a non-negligible effect on the meaning”. I found it interesting that Swan provided a possible explanation for my intuitive slight preference for this in OP’s context. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language in its section p on anaphoric uses of this and that with noun phrases as antecedents states:.

For many years, East German people devised 1 creative ways to sneak out of East Germany.

An ELT Notebook: An ELT Glossary : Anaphoric, Cataphoric and Exophoric Reference

Sign up using Facebook. In contrast, Swan in Practical English Usage p does detect a slight difference: The object felt heavy in his hands.

Leave a comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

Anaphoric reference means that a word refers back to another word for its meaning, previously mentioned words. Post Your Answer Discard By cataphotic “Post Your Answer”, you acknowledge that you have read our updated terms of serviceprivacy policy and cookie policyand that your continued use of the website is subject to these policies.

They refers to some people outside the discourse known to both speakers. In practice, however, unless there are two likely referents to distinguish between, they are pretty much interchangeable in anaphor. It is likely that the OP’s sentence will be followed by something catphoric on the new subject academic eagerness.