EEB Greenhouse Accession Data for Bursera schlechtendalii. Bursera schlechtendalii is a species of plants with 32 observations. Brief summary. No one has contributed a brief summary to this page yet. Explore what EOL knows about Bursera schlechtendalii. Add a brief summary to this.
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Therefore, highly squirting Bursera species tend to have highly volatile mixtures, while the mixtures of non-squirting species are less volatile.
The rupture of the laticifers stops the flow of latex to the margin of the leaf that is subsequently consumed by these beetles Williams, Also, water-stressed plants tend to release significantly lower amounts of resin, indicating that environmental factors can affect this response Becerra, a. These beetles often carry spores of pathogenic fungi that infect the tree, weaken it, and accelerate its death. We present data suggesting an interaction between the mechanical and the chemical components of this defense.
This phenomenon is less common among plants and, as we will explain in more detail in the following sections, it has very important consequences for herbivore’s antipredator defense. Also, the relative amounts of the different compounds schlechtendalui the mixture tend to be more even, which is reflected in lower dominance values.
The squirt defense has detrimental effects even on these specialized vein-cutting herbivores. Bursera infiernidialis Bursera instabilis Bursera isthmica. The resin of some squirting burseras consists almost entirely of one compound. Bursera species often produce complex mixtures containing many individual compounds, often belonging to several terpenoid types.
However, larvae living on plants with a higher percentage of squirting leaves have higher mortality. The genus schpechtendalii great chemical variation in the terpenoid composition the number, identity, and relative amounts of individual terpenoids; Dominguez et al.
The volatile compounds found in the leaves of Artemisia annua differ depending on whether biotypes have glandular trichomes or not Tellez et al. The dendrogram of chemical similarity of Bursera species showed a remarkable correspondence to groupings of species based on their squirt response. Larvae of species that feed on hosts releasing little or no fluids when damaged typically do not regurgitate, release an anal secretion, or carry their feces on their backs.
Accumulation of terpenoids is more expensive per gram than accumulation of most other primary and secondary metabolites Gershenzon, If the release of a bursega pressurized liquid is an effective antiherbivore defense, the chemical nature of the individual components may not be as important as in non-releasing Bursera species.
Besides containing toxic chemicals, these exudates pose a mechanical threat to insects because they solidify upon exposure to air and may impede the movement of of herbivorous insects. These plants are also susceptible to specialized insects that can deactivate canals by cutting veins or trenches Becerra, b.
There is variation in resin response among individual leaves and among plants of squirting Bursera. Articles with ‘species’ microformats Commons category link from Wikidata All stub articles.
Another explanation for the peculiar chemical simplicity of squirting burseras is a relaxation of the need for chemical defenses. When such plants are damaged, there schlechtendakii an immediate release of fluids from injured tissues, often in copious quantities.
Extracts of the larvae and enteric discharges of Blepharida schlechtendalii contain all of the volatile compounds identified from the plant. Bursera schlechtendalii and Bursera biflora are representative of the squirting and non-squirting syndromes respectively. Latex and resin canals occur in more than 35, species Farrell et al. Larvae of Blepharida species that feed on the Bursera species schlechtendaoii release little or no fluids after damage, do not sever the leaf veins.
Great Plains Herbaria – Bursera schlechtendalii
Bars indicate the relative schlechtendaalii of the different compounds found, according to their retention times in the gas-chromatograph. S is the Simpson index of chemical dominance lower values of S correspond to increased chemical diversity; see text for details.
This slows their growth, delays pupation, and increases their risk of predation Becerra, a. The resin canals of Pinaceae and Bursera species contain terpenes Raffa, ; Evans et al. The collection of their feces is the result of a dorsal anus and a neuromuscular propulsion system that conveys feces forward over the larvae Vencl and Morton, In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.
Thus, biotypes that rely on both mechanical and chemical defenses have more volatile chemical mixtures, while biotypes that depend solely on chemical protection have more complex and less volatile chemical combinations. Perhaps the schlecjtendalii to terpene squirting provides a clue. It is apparent that an interaction exists between the chemical and the mechanical components of the squirt gun defense in Burserawhich has resulted in some species having powerful squirts but simple chemistry.
One single toxic or repellent compound that satisfies the required physical demands of the squirt defense may be an effective, economical option. These species may also release an anal secretion or regurgitate when attacked or disturbed by predators Evans et al. The genus diversified in the tropical dry forests of Mexico where about 80 species occur and about 70 are endemic Rzedowski and Kruse, ; Becerra and Venable, a, b. Yet, this does not explain why only one or two monoterpenes dominate the mixture.
Their high cost is due to extensive chemical reduction mediated by ATP and NADPH and the expense of producing specific enzymes that catalyze the reactions along the biosynthetic pathway. We have measured the squirt response of a sample of 15 to 20 leaves in each of individual plants of Bursera schlechtendalii over 5 yr.
In this article we report an investigation of plant secretory canals and their relationship with plant chemistry in the genus Bursera. The chemical mixture of the non-squirting Bursera biflora is less volatile, more diverse, and more complex than the one of Bursera schlechtendalii.
However, in some Bursera species resins are under considerable pressure and, when a leaf is damaged, may be released in a spectacular syringe-like squirt. Cluster 2 contains many of the species that typically do not release any fluids, and clusters 3 and 4 consists mostly of species that release smaller amounts than the species in cluster 1. Bursera fagaroides Kunth Engl. Squirt strength was documented by cutting 5 to 20 leaves on multiple individuals per species with nail clippers.