Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space were realized, including the hotly debated question of ludology vs. narratology. LUDOLOGY MEETS NARRATOLOGY.: Similitude and differences between ( video)games and narrative. By Gonzalo Frasca. Finnish version. Ludology Meets Narratology – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.

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There is some truth narrratology this complaint, because readers or spectators who are fully engaged with a story are usually not in the best position to reflect on its structural and functional properties.

The session is not the ludusit is just a product of it. Oxford University Press, We will propose the term ludology from ludusthe Latin word for “game”to refer to the yet non-existent “discipline that studies game and play activities”. These rules can be transcribed, and easily transmitted among different players. However, even if plot is narratilogy important element of narrative, many others exist.

In fact, arms races and economic competition have no rules from which the actions of the opponent can be derived: According to what we just saw, the answer would be yes, because ludus sessions are structurally similar to narrative sequences. This predominance of narrative in the humanities is no longer uncontested.

Similitude and differences between video narratolog and narrative. The player has more freedom to determine her goals. This requirement would safeguard games studies from intrusions by narratologists, but it reveals itself as a fallacy when one applies it to narratologists. We have decided to maintain these neologisms, in order to solve some confusions that may arise mostly oudology in English “play” and “game” are both a noun and a verb.

And because of this, game formalist studies are fragmented through different disciplines, and not very well developed.


meeys Gonzalo Frasca a, p. But, again, this distinction confuses the phenomenological experience with a theoretical perspective. Game theorists, on the other hand, are interested ludoloty all paths the players can choose. There are two terms in English to define the activity: Paidea videogames have no pre-designated goal. Games focus on self-mastery and exploration of the external world, not exploration of interpersonal relationships except for multiplayer games.

However, the player is not an external observer. In other words, narratologists take as the point of departure for backward induction the actually reached final state of an itinerary through state space. The point-of-view of the game player on the other hand, games studies scholars argue, is prospective because luodlogy the gamer the outcome of the game is still hidden in the future. The limits of play are more diffuse that game: Other languages just use one term for example, ” juego ” in Spanish, ” jeu ” in French.

By environment we mean the space where naratology player is real, as in a school playground, or virtual, as in a videogame. Languages even have syntactical constructions for thought experiments like these, known as conditionals, counterfactuals or hypothetical constructions e.

Build It to Understand It: Ludology Meets Narratology in Game Design Space

It would be interesting to broaden our study and analyze other kinds of software, particularly hypertext fiction. Moreover, game players also know that whatever happens to their avatars in the gameworld, nothing nasty will happen to them. meetx

A game, then, is not a game because it has some set of features that jointly guarantee its gameness, but because it can be modelled by game theory. Retrieved February 28, This obviously is an argument meetw the storytelling ball kind. IT University of Copenhagen. By weighted, we mean an action that, once it has been narrztology, has a particular value triumph or defeat.

Each combination of elements or functions is called a sequence.

This normal-form representation abstracts away from many of the factors operative in their real world counterparts, so one could say that game theory reduces all sorts of situations to a single form: The player can define his own goal: Conclusion If one is to go by the writings of some games studies scholars, games studies and narratology are like two players involved in a zero-sum game in which one player gains what the other player loses. The reason is probably that the last one is generally closer to a culturally accepted narrative mfets.


Salen, Katie and Eric Zimmerman Probably because most games studies scholars have a background in literary studies and film studies, where narratological approaches enjoy a prominent status, some games studies scholars feel urged to demonstrate that games are not narratives. Even more complex narrative characters are more coherent than the behavior of MUDs players, because behind them there is an author narrztology their actions.


So, there is no “winning plot”, as in adventure videogames. Actually, we could easily add the Abstention option in ludustoo: This is a matrix that lists the payoffs for every combination of strategies the players can deploy.

In this paper we will propose to explore videogames and cybertexts as games. The agent tries a combination code.

And because it represents the choices available to each player and the payoffs of the players for each possible combination of strategies, it makes it possible to outline the potential calculations of each player.

This applies to many games in the limited, everyday sense of the word but also to interactions between decision makers in which things are more narratilogy. As Edward Branigan argues: We also have just focused on certain videogames, and a very particular kind of cybertext: